Novel cardiovascular risk factors: air pollution, air temperature, pain, and sleep duration

For the podcast associated with this article, please visit Traditionally, we have used age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, smoking, and diabetes to assess cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, up until recently, the CV risk provided by environemental hazards such as pollution,1–3 noise,4–6 temperature,7 sleep duration8, and air quality,9,10 among others, have been